Amino Acids in Plants: Regulation and Functions in Development and Stress Defence plants from

AMNIOACID About this Research Topic

For quite a long time, research on amino acid metabolism received only limited attention in the areas of plant physiology and biochemistry. Owing to the essential function of amino acids in protein synthesis, it was tempting to assume that plants use and metabolize amino acids in the same manner as microorganism or human do. However, as fully autotrophic organisms, plants face fundamentally different challenges compared to organisms that make a living on plant-(or algae-) produced biomass. Furthermore, plants produce literally hundreds of non-protein organic amino acids or amino acid-derived secondary metabolites and thus require a very distinct regulatory system to coordinate the needs of primary and secondary metabolism. The distribution of amino acid metabolism between roots and above ground organs or among the different subcellular compartments adds another level of complexity further distinguishing plants from prokaryotes or animals.

From the perspective of human nutrition, the amino acids that we cannot synthesize by ourselves are the most interesting. Accordingly, the efforts to understand the routes and regulation of Lys, Met, and Trp biosynthesis has boosted amino acid research in plants, since these three amino acids are often contained in limiting amounts in staple crops. From an agriculture perspective, amino acid biosynthetic pathways that are exclusively found in plants were analysed and used for the development of herbicides.

At present, the threats of climate change and groundwater contamination by excess nitrogen fertilization call for a re-focusing of our efforts. Optimal productivity is currently achieved by massive application of nitrogen-containing fertilizers and is yet limited by the efficiency of the plants in taking up, distributing, storing and assimilating the nitrogen, with all these processes being governed by amino acid metabolism and transport. Similarly, many defence responses of plants against biotic or abiotic stress involve metabolic adjustment in amino acid metabolism to counteract detrimental impacts directly or to provide precursors for defence compounds. Several amino acids emerge as important signalling molecules that orchestrate plant growth and development by integrating the metabolic status of the plant with environment signals, especially in stressful conditions. However, our knowledge about amino acid metabolism, the mechanism that regulate the levels of free amino acids and the diverse functions of amino acids in plants is far from complete.

This Research Topic aims to collect contributions from different facets of amino acid metabolism, transport or signalling to bring together and integrate into a comprehensive view the latest advances in our understanding of the multiple functions of amino acids in plants. All types of articles related to this field of plant physiology, including Original Research, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Methods, Commentaries, and Opinions are welcome.

Keywords: Amino Acid Metabolism, Amino Acid Transport, Stress Responses, Nitrogen Sensing, and Assimilation, Nitrogen Use Effectively, Crop Enhancement.

Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.

Why Humic Acid Is Beneficial for Plant Growth

humic acidTakeaway: Just what exactly is that black powdery stuff growers are often asked to put their soil, and how does it work? Here is master gardener Russell Landry with an explanation on humic acid.

Humic acid is often referred to as a natural plant-growth stimulator that increases plant metabolism and nutrient intake and improves plant development. These are pretty tall claims for any natural supplement: however, humic acid is one of the major components of organic matter found within nature’s most fertile soils.

Where can humic acid be found?

There are many types of natural humic acid amendment products used today, like this one from Monterey. They are often found in granular or liquid form and are dark brown. Humic acid and its cousins , fulvic acid and humus, can be found in most soils, marsh water courses , and boggy peat moss areas.

These organic compounds can also be found overlying the earth’s coal deposits (leonardite) in various forms and compositions. They are the end result of years of decaying plant organic matter that has been continually broken down by microbes from its prior human forms.

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What is humic acid?

Humic acid is one of the best natural chelating products Mother Nature offers. It not only raises cation exchange capacity (CEC) or nutrient-holding capacity of soil, it also holds calcium and other micronutrients in forms that are easy for plants to uptake.

Humic acid contains numerous negatively charged anions that attract or hold onto positively charged cations in the soil. The cations growers are concerned with include magnesium, and iron among the most important.

This chelation of cations is probably the most important role of humic acid with respect to boosting plant production and fruit and vegetable yields. The CEC of the most popular brands of humic acid is in the range of 500 to 600 milliequivalents per 100 grams.

This is about five times greater than the CEC of high-quality peat moss and twice as high as the CEC of soil humus. Best results are obtained using natural ancient deposits of humus materials that are rich in both humic and fulvic acids.

What does humic acid do?

Humic acid also prevents calcium and other positively charged micro cations leaching from the soil by binding them to the soil’s molecules. It allows mycorrhizal fungi to flourish and easily colonize plant roots by providing nutrients in an easy-to-open storage bin.
The fungi easily garner and exchange other elements and thus share their required nutrients by transporting them directly into the root zone.

In the case of boosting yields, the increased uptake of nutrients is perhaps the greatest benefit of humic acid. In a sense, mycorrhizal fungi is the factory that processes the elements that are mined from the humic acid then shipped on the way to often results in increased yields.

Humic acid is ultimately a worthwhile investment when considering adding enhancements to your soil. It is one of the best natural sources of organic matter a grower could want.

Fulvic acid, humic acid’s cousin,

Is a more concentrated, smaller-particle form of the acid blends usually found in liquid form. It is referred to as a plant growth booster that increases plant metabolism and improves root development by also increasing nutrient intake.

It is naturally produced in soil by composting or after years of organic matter decay. Fulvic acid can rejuvenate soil and is an excellent supplement to fertilizers. It is also used to improve nutrient absorption and also to raise the CEC of soil.

Does adding humic or fulvic acidto your soil work? Drive by a nearby marsh or wetland and find out for yourself. Mucky soils found in marshy and low wetlands are often used to grow vegetables.

Marshy and swampy drained soils are rich in both acids and are some of the most productive areas on the planet. Thanks largely to the accumulation of the humic and fulvic built up in the soil over millennia, growers are able to easily boost their yields.


Using Soft Water, Hard Water and Reverse Osmosis Water for Garden and plants  


Come spring and summer, you might find yourself wondering “what is the best water for my plants?” Lets explain how hard water, soft water, and reverse osmosis filt affect your plants, so you can make the right decision for everything in your garden.

The Effect of hard on your Plants 

Hard water has a higher concentration of calcium and magnesium carbonate salts. While it is not preferable for use in household water can be good for your plants if used for watering acid-loving plants such as Azaleas, caladiums and Begonias.

However, check the pH level of the hard water you are using, as it might also cause stunted growth in plants of a more diverse

Using soft water for Gardening

Water softeners use sodium chloride and use of soft water will gradually cause a build-up of sodium in your garden‘s soil sodium not good for plant growth, thus it is not recommended to use softened water for use in plants and gardens.

Is hard water bad for your plants???

Hard water contains calcium and magnesium carbonate salts. At home, it causes stains spots, and build up on your sinks and fixtures. But in the right amount ,hard water can be good for your plants. Just be sure to check for any stunned growth since very high levels of calcium and magnesium can hurt more diverse gardens.

If you’re growing acid-loving plants like Azaleas, caladiums, and begonias, you’ll need to check the pH of your water. High alkalinity is common in hard water and problems for plant growth. In this case, reverse osmosis water can offer more controllable watering.

How does soft water affect plants?

If your plants get plenty of rainwater, then occasional soft water won’t hurt. But watering plants exclusively with soft water isn’t recommended. Most water softness us chloride, which can cause a gradual build up of sodium in garden soil. This can cause plant growth problems.

Instead of soft water, use hard water or reverse osmosis for watering plants. Your local Collagen Man can easily create a bypass for outdoor spigots, so you’ll only get so where you want it.


Reverse Osmosis Water

RO water is quite popular with a diverse plant collection. The biggest benefit of RO purified water is that it is free in-organic contaminants and can be easily tweaked with additional minerals and nutrients to nurture your plants.

RO water is just like having rain water coming out of your tap, and you can easily change the Ph. or RO water to suit your special needs.

Our Verdict

Well, it is quite obvious that reverse osmosis water is the best choice among the three types of water you can use for gardening. Hard water can be used in some instances, using soft water is not recommended at all.

If you are a gardening enthusiast and looking for a clean sources of water for your mini-garden, buy an RO water purifier and your plants bloom.

Hubble Space Telescope

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Hubble space telescope is the largest and the first space telescope, launched in 1990. It is an astronomical observatory. Hubble Space telescope (HST) telescope is named after Edwin Hubble, who was a great astronomer. It has 2.4 meter (7.9ft)mirror. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was built by United State’s space agency NASA. Hubble is the only telescope designed to be operated by astronauts in space. How far it can see: 10-15 billion light years. It is NASA’s one of most successful project.

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